Effects of second-hand and third-hand smoke


American Cancer Society: “Second-hand smoke”.

Office of the Surgeon General: “The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report from the Surgeon General”, June 27, 2006.

National Cancer Institute: “Second-hand smoke: questions and answers”.

CDC: “Secondhand Smoke: What It Means to You.”

CDC: “Trends in exposure to second-hand smoke.”

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American Heart Association: “Toddlers are most affected by secondary exposure in the home.”

American Lung Association: “Secondhand Smoke Fact Sheet.”

American Heart Association: “Smoking: do you really know the risks?” »

CDC: “Smoking cigarettes in the United States”.

Chemical research in toxicology: “Thirdhand Smoke: New Evidence, Challenges, and Future Directions.”

Cleveland Clinic: “The dangers of second-hand smoke – especially for children and those who don’t smoke.”

Clinical sciences: “In utero and early exposure to second-hand smoke causes profound changes in the immune system.

eBioMedicine: “Dermal exposure to secondhand smoke induces oxidative damage, initiates inflammatory markers in the skin, and negatively alters the human plasma proteome.”

Mayo Clinic: “What is third-hand smoke and why is it a Worry?”

PNAS: “Indoor formation by surface reactions of nicotine with nitrous acid, resulting in potential secondhand smoke hazards.”

Scientists progress: “Human Transport of Second-hand Tobacco Smoke: A Significant Source of Hazardous Air Pollutants in Non-Smoking Indoor Environments.”

Tobacco Control: “Third-hand smoke: here to stay”, “When smokers move out and non-smokers move in: pollution and exposure to residential third-hand smoke”, “Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposure”.

European journal of research: “Should we be concerned about children’s exposure to third-hand by-products generated by electronic nicotine delivery systems?”

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