Effects of exposure to cigarette smoke on a mouse model of multiple sclerosis

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Toxicol Rep. 2022 Mar 29;9:597-610. doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2022.03.032. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease associated with genetic and environmental factors. Smoking is harmful to health and can be one of the risk factors for MS. However, there have been no systematic investigations under controlled experimental conditions linking cigarette smoke (CS) and MS. The present study is the first inhalation study to correlate the preclinical and pathological manifestations affected by different CS exposure doses in an experimental model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were exposed whole body to fresh air (simulation) or three concentrations of CS from a reference cigarette (3R4F) for 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after induction of EEA. The effects of exposure on body weight, clinical symptoms, spinal cord pathology and serum biochemistry were then assessed. Exposure to low and medium concentrations of CS exacerbated the severity of symptoms and spinal cord pathology, while the high concentration had no effect compared to sham exposure in mice with EAE . Interestingly, clinical chemistry parameters for metabolic profile as well as liver and kidney function (eg, triglyceride and creatinine levels, alkaline phosphatase activity) were lower in these mice than in naïve controls. . Although the EAE mouse model does not fully recapitulate the pathology or symptoms of MS in humans, these results largely support previous epidemiological findings that CS exposure can worsen MS symptoms and pathology. Additionally, the study highlights the possible correlation of clinical chemistry findings such as metabolism and liver and kidney function between MS patients and EAE mice.

PMID:35392156 | PMC:PMC8980708 | DOI:10.1016/j.toxrep.2022.03.032

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