Cigarette effects – Cheap West Cigarettes http://cheapwestcigarettes.com/ Tue, 15 Nov 2022 17:57:54 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/cropped-icon-32x32.png Cigarette effects – Cheap West Cigarettes http://cheapwestcigarettes.com/ 32 32 Cardiac side effects and when to get an ECG https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/cardiac-side-effects-and-when-to-get-an-ecg/ Tue, 15 Nov 2022 16:07:25 +0000 https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/cardiac-side-effects-and-when-to-get-an-ecg/ BIPOLAR UPDATE A recent consultation prompted an assessment of the evidence on when to monitor electrocardiograms (ECGs) in patients taking lithium. Opinions vary and tend to be vague about when and how often the ECG should be measured. Mogens Schou, MD, who was perhaps the world’s foremost expert on lithium and a strong advocate for […]]]>

BIPOLAR UPDATE

A recent consultation prompted an assessment of the evidence on when to monitor electrocardiograms (ECGs) in patients taking lithium. Opinions vary and tend to be vague about when and how often the ECG should be measured. Mogens Schou, MD, who was perhaps the world’s foremost expert on lithium and a strong advocate for its use, observed that lithium occasionally alters the electrical function or activity of the heart, but that the presence of disease should rarely preclude lithium therapy.1 If heart disease was present, however, he recommended consultation with a cardiologist and serial ECGs could be considered. Much more recently, Maudsley’s Prescribing Guidelines in UK Psychiatry recommended having an ECG if there are risk factors or pre-existing heart conditions, but did not offer further details.2

In what appears to be the most thorough examination of the topic, Mehta and Vannozzi have proposed that, although data are limited, routine ECG monitoring appears unnecessary. However, if patients are maintained or develop elevated lithium levels (eg, 1.2 mEq/L or greater), the risks of arrhythmias, ST-segment changes, and QRS prolongations become significant. and a baseline ECG and periodic rehearsals are worth doing.3 They also noted that lithium-induced ECG changes are more likely to pass beyond age 60. This population has a high prevalence of ischemic heart disease, and the 2 most common lithium-induced changes (T-wave inversions and sinus dysfunctions such as bradycardia) are also common manifestations of cardiac ischemia. Thus, it would be important to delineate the cause if such abnormalities were found. Therefore, Mehta and Vannozzi recommended a baseline ECG and follow-up at least every 6-12 months for anyone over 60 taking lithium with risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking and a positive family history.

In reviewing the literature from this “comprehensive” literature search (as the authors described it), we found only case reports. In the most recent case, a 52-year-old woman with a complex medical presentation including fever and sepsis had been taking lithium for 10 years. His ECG showed a wide range of abnormalities which, after ruling out other factors, appeared to be mostly due to lithium as they were present even when his medical issues were resolved.4 There was acute atrial fibrillation when his lithium level was 2.0 mEq/L (also found in some case reports in the Mehta and Vannozzi journal and in another recent case report5), but this quickly converted when the lithium level returned to normal. Six months later, with normal lithium levels, the patient still had ST-segment elevation and inverted T waves. The report authors concluded that unpredictable genetic and comorbid factors could make a patient vulnerable to life-threatening arrhythmias if the right provocations present themselves, and the presence of abnormalities at therapeutic levels could predict who is vulnerable. Therefore, they recommended that all patients receiving lithium have a baseline ECG and “regular” monitoring. They noted that these vulnerabilities might be more common in patients taking lithium long-term, hence the need for ongoing monitoring.3

In summary, it seems that although there are no standardized, officially approved guidelines for serial ECG monitoring with lithium, we should probably get more baseline ECGs and repeat them more frequently in patients on long-term lithium and in those who develop cardiac risk factors. . It would be prudent to consult our fellow cardiologists on any abnormal results.

Dr Osser is associate professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts, and co-director of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs National Bipolar Disorders Telehealth Program in Brockton, Massachusetts. The author declares no conflict of interest concerning the subject of this article.

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American Heart Association – InsuranceNewsNet https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/american-heart-association-insurancenewsnet/ Fri, 11 Nov 2022 22:32:03 +0000 https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/american-heart-association-insurancenewsnet/ 2022 NOV 11 (NewsRx) — By a News Reporter – Staff News Editor at Daily Insurance News — DALLAS– Using pod-based e-cigarettes can lead to exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can negatively affect cardiovascular health in the same way as smoking traditional cigarettes, according to preliminary research to be presented at the American […]]]>

2022 NOV 11 (NewsRx) — By a News Reporter – Staff News Editor at Daily Insurance NewsDALLAS– Using pod-based e-cigarettes can lead to exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can negatively affect cardiovascular health in the same way as smoking traditional cigarettes, according to preliminary research to be presented at the American Heart Association’s 2022 Scientific Sessions. The meeting, held in person at Chicago and virtually, November 5-7, 2022is a leading global exchange of the latest scientific advances, research and evidence-based clinical practice updates in the field of cardiovascular sciences.

VOCs are a broad group of gases found in many common items, such as cleaning products, paint, cigarettes, vehicle exhaust, pesticides, and other substances. According to United States Environmental Protection Agencythe ability of volatile organic chemicals to cause health effects varies widely from being highly toxic to having no known health effects.

“Pod-based e-cigarettes are commonly marketed to youth and young adults, as well as people who are trying to quit or cut down on regular cigarette smoking,” said the study’s lead author. Sana MajidMD, MS, postdoctoral fellow at Boston University School of Medicine. “However, the long-term health effects of using these new tobacco products are currently unknown, which is why we conducted this study.”

As part of the American Heart Association Tobacco Center for Regulatory Science (TCORS), Majid and colleagues assessed the impact of pod e-cigarettes on heart health. This observational study, in which participants visited the study center once, compared vascular effects related to VOC exposure in pod e-cigarette users, fuel cigarette users, and people who declared not to use tobacco or nicotine.

The study included 106 young adults, aged 18 to 45, with no cardiovascular disease or risk factors (no diagnosis or increased risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes or dyslipidemia (high cholesterol)). Participants were recruited between 2019 and 2021 at Boston University School of Medicine and at the University of Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky. Participants were primarily local residents, as well as students and faculty members. Participants identified as 49% male and 51% female; 35% of pod e-cigarette users were female, 33% of fuel cigarette users were female, and 81% of non-smokers were female.

About 45% (48) of participants used pod e-cigarettes; 20% (21) smoked combustible cigarettes; and 35% (37) reported not using tobacco in any form. At the time of the study, 37% of pod e-cigarette users said they had never smoked traditional cigarettes; 64% used e-cigarettes exclusively; and 36% used both e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes.

The participants’ vascular function (functioning of the arteries and veins that move blood throughout the body) and blood pressure were measured before and after using their favorite tobacco product for 10 minutes. Measurements were taken in one day, during one clinic visit for each participant. Vascular function was measured by examining flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery – the widening of the artery in the arm in response to increased blood flow – both before and 30 minutes after the participants used their preferred tobacco product, with a single measurement taken at both time points. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured 10 minutes after the participants used their preferred tobacco product, with the researchers recording the average of three readings before and after using the product. Urinary VOC levels were measured at baseline and one hour after using e-cigarettes or traditional cigarettes.

The results revealed that young adults who use pod e-cigarettes experienced changes in blood vessel health similar to traditional cigarette smokers:

“Our results demonstrate that pod-based e-cigarette use has long- and short-term effects on the vascular system in healthy young adults, including those who have only smoked e-cigarettes. and have never smoked combustible cigarettes. These results indicate that e-cigarettes release chemicals that are toxic to blood vessels, and the use of pod e-cigarettes may be associated with harm,” said Majid said Long-term effects included participants’ baseline readings for blood pressure and heart rate and short-term effects included those readings after participants used e-cigarettes or combustible cigarettes.

The use of pod e-cigarettes has increased among youth and young adults in recent years. “Youth and young adults should avoid using tobacco products, including pod e-cigarettes, as they can harm blood vessel health. Establishing regulations that make it harder for young people to start using e-cigarettes is an important part of achieving a tobacco-free future,” she continued. “We also need better approaches to help people stop using all tobacco products and expand support and access to cessation programs and medications.

Study limitations included participants using their own tobacco product, which made it difficult to isolate the effects of each of the products’ individual components, such as nicotine levels or flavors, as well as differences in vascular function. in each participant that may be associated with the use of specific types or brands of tobacco products. Additionally, most participants used mint-flavored pods, and larger studies may be needed to capture the differences associated with different flavor types.

The co-authors are Jessica L. FettermanPh.D.; Robert M. WeisbrodMY; Andrew C. StokesPh.D.; Michael J. BlahaMD, MPH; Sanjay SrivastavaPh.D., FAHA; Rose M.RobertsonMD, FAHA; Aruni BhatnagarPh.D., FAHA; Rachel J. Keith, Ph.D., APRN, ANP-C.; and Naomi M. Hamburg, MD, MS, FAHA. Author disclosures are listed in the abstract.

The study was funded by the American Heart Association Tobacco Regulatory Research Center with grants from the WE food and Medication Administration Center for Tobacco Products through the National Heart, Lung and blood institutea division of National Institutes of Health. Through this Center, the American Heart Association works closely with researchers at institutions across the country to pursue research that adds to existing knowledge about the health effects of smoking and nicotine-related products, including e-cigarettes, results that can help inform public health and tobacco product regulation.

Statements and conclusions of studies that are presented at American Heart Association scientific meetings are solely those of the study authors and do not necessarily reflect the policy or position of the Association. The Association makes no representations or warranties as to their accuracy or reliability. Abstracts presented at the Association’s scientific meetings are not peer-reviewed, but rather by independent review committees and are considered based on the potential to add to the diversity of scientific issues and viewpoints discussed. during a meeting. Results are considered preliminary until published as a full manuscript in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

The Association receives funds primarily from individuals; foundations and corporations (including pharmaceutical companies, device manufacturers, and other businesses) also donate and fund Association-specific programs and events. The Association has strict policies to prevent these relationships from influencing scholarly content. Revenues from pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, device manufacturers, and health insurance providers as well as the Association’s aggregate financial information are available here.

Additional Resources:

The American Heart Association’s 2022 Scientific Sessions are a premier global exchange of the latest scientific advances, research, and evidence-based clinical practice updates in cardiovascular science. The 3-day meeting will feature over 500 sessions focused on groundbreaking updates in basic, clinical, and population science cardiovascular sciences, Saturday through Monday, November 5-7, 2022. Thousands of leading physicians, scientists, cardiologists, advanced practice nurses and allied health professionals from around the world will gather virtually to participate in basic, clinical and population science presentations, discussions and programs that can shape the future of cardiovascular science and medicine, including prevention and quality improvement. During the three-day meeting, attendees receive exclusive access to more than 4,000 original research presentations and can earn continuing medical education (CME), continuing education (CE), or certification maintenance credits ( MOC) for training sessions. Take part in the 2022 scientific sessions on social networks via #AHA22.
The keywords in this news article include: American Heart AssociationBlood pressure, Blood vessels, Cardio system, Cardiology, Cardiovascular, Cardiovascular diseases and conditions, Cardiovascular researchCardiovascular system, Chemicals, Health and medicine, Heart rate, Hemodynamics, Hypertension, Medical devices, Risk and prevention, Smoking.

(Our reports provide factual information on research and discoveries around the world.)

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AHA: vaping is linked to negative effects on cardiovascular function https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/aha-vaping-is-linked-to-negative-effects-on-cardiovascular-function/ Wed, 09 Nov 2022 15:02:37 +0000 https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/aha-vaping-is-linked-to-negative-effects-on-cardiovascular-function/ MONDAY, Nov. 7, 2022 (HealthDay News) — Significant negative effects on cardiovascular function are seen in people who vape, according to two studies based on the Cardiac and Lung E-cig Smoking (CLUES) cross-sectional study and presented at Scientific Sessions 2022 of the American Heart Association, held November 5-7 in Chicago. Matthew C. Tattersall, DO, of […]]]>

MONDAY, Nov. 7, 2022 (HealthDay News) — Significant negative effects on cardiovascular function are seen in people who vape, according to two studies based on the Cardiac and Lung E-cig Smoking (CLUES) cross-sectional study and presented at Scientific Sessions 2022 of the American Heart Association, held November 5-7 in Chicago.

Matthew C. Tattersall, DO, of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and colleagues examined differences in cardiovascular and autonomic function responses to the use of electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) by chronic users of ENDS (vapers), use of combustible cigarettes (smokers), and no product use among non-smokers/non-vapers controls (164, 117, and 114 participants, respectively). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, brachial artery diameter, and time-domain heart rate variability were examined before and 15 minutes after a test use of the product. Researchers found that vapers had greater increases in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate and had greater reductions in brachial artery diameter compared to controls, as well as reductions larger successive rms differences in successive normal intervals and percentage of adjacent normal intervals >50 ms than controls; the values ​​were similar to those of smokers.

Christina M. Hughey, MD, of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and colleagues examined whether treadmill stress test results differed for vapers, smokers, and controls in the CLUES study (164, 117 and 114 participants, respectively). Participants completed a symptom-limited Balke treadmill stress test protocol an average of 91.3 minutes after vaping, smoking, or resting. Researchers found that compared to controls, vapers performed worse on all four exercise parameters: peak metabolic equivalents, peak rate-pressure product, heart rate reserve, and rate recovery. cardiac in 60 seconds; values ​​for vapers were intermediate compared to smokers.

“Our results from the CLUES study raise concerns about the potential harms of chronic use of electronic nicotine delivery systems, particularly for cardiovascular disease,” a co-author from both studies said in a statement.

Press release

More information

Copyright © 2022 Health Day. All rights reserved.

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Why Every Judge Endorsed This Product https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/why-every-judge-endorsed-this-product/ Sun, 30 Oct 2022 09:12:31 +0000 https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/why-every-judge-endorsed-this-product/ (Thursday, September 17, 2020) – It was the most-watched episode of the show when Chris Thomson won the 5-judge panel. VSChris Thomson, an MIT chemist, wins the biggest contract in television history as the 5 investors team up to launch his company with a staggering $2.5 million! In just 6 […]]]>




(Thursday, September 17, 2020)
– It was the most-watched episode of the show when Chris Thomson won the 5-judge panel.

VSChris Thomson, an MIT chemist, wins the biggest contract in television history as the 5 investors team up to launch his company with a staggering $2.5 million! In just 6 months, his product has completely disrupted the high blood pressure industry in the United States, and with the help of investors, he is now ready to take on the global market.

After buying a staggering 25% stake in the groundbreaking company, the panel personally mentored Chris, helping him rebrand and repackage his wonder product now called StrictionBP Advanced Formula. This is the original formula, only the name and the packaging have changed.

The judges were amazed that one product was able to do all of the following:

– Regulates blood pressure
– Lower blood pressure
– Lowers bad cholesterol (LDL)
– Increases good cholesterol (HDL)
– Balances blood pressure levels
– Made from 100% natural and organic ingredients

Apparently Chris has invented a new chemical compound that can lower blood pressure and lower bad cholesterol. More importantly, it can effectively reverse high blood pressure.

Although there are a number of “supplements” on the market that claim to cure high blood pressure, Chris created the first reuptake inhibitor (RI), making it particularly more effective at seriously reduce blood pressure.

RI works by blocking inhibition of the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron. What this means for men without a PhD in chemistry: a real solution for high blood pressure.

Chris was the first candidate in TV venture history to receive investment offers from all five panel members.

The high blood pressure industry is a huge market, but it is rarely reported. Studies have shown that 32% of American adults have high blood pressure, and only about 54% of people with high blood pressure have their condition under control.

In order to test the validity of Chris’ product, we decided to take on a volunteer from our editorial team. Meet Bill Rhodes, a 54-year-old father of 3 who jumped at the chance to test this product.

Bill is a 54 year old professional who had clinical hypertension for over 13 years. We had to wait 2 weeks to get a bottle to test as it was sold out almost everywhere we looked. We had him track his progress for the 14-day test.

HERE ARE BILL’S RESULTS:

Day 1

“I took two capsules and forgot all about it. About 1-2 hours later I started to feel strangely better. I can only describe it by saying that it was easier to breathe d ‘one way or another. I was walking through a mall with my wife and usually I would have been a little dizzy with headaches, and I would also have been nauseous at the time, but I I was totally fine. For a while I felt like my high blood pressure was totally normal. It was a feeling of hope and I got really curious about what was going to happen next – c ‘was great.”


Day 5

“Over the next 5 days I started to feel better and better. I found myself jumping out of bed and feeling ready to face the day – usually I have to press the snooze button at least a few times. I felt motivation like I hadn’t felt in years. I had consistently higher energy levels, rather than the ups and downs I was used to. I had also got to sleep through the night!I was shocked at the drastic results.


Day 14

“After 14 days, not only were all my doubts and skepticism completely gone – my high blood pressure was completely normal and I no longer needed to check it 10 times a day. I had no idea about two secret ingredients little known in a natural supplement could make a big positive difference in how I felt. I’m so grateful to the investors for sharing their findings with us and trying StrictionBP Advanced Formula!”


As investors toast to their smart business move, men and women across the United States flock online to buy StrictionBP Advanced Formula and say the results were life changing.

The clinical trials of StrictionBP Advanced Formula found that women and men who used the Dietary supplement were able to fully balance their blood pressure in as little as 2 weeks.

StrictionBP Advanced Formula revolutionizes the medicine of arterial hypertension”, explains an investor.

Will it work for you?


There are many solutions for high blood pressure that you can try. Some of them include taking drugs with dangerous side effects. Others involve putting needles into your body. With so many options, it’s normal to be skeptical about the results. So instead of promising our readers anything, we challenge you to follow in the footsteps of 10,000 satisfied customers and try it yourself!

Investors said these pills were designed to lower blood pressure, and that’s exactly what happened to Bill and countless others. When contacted for comment, Chris graciously provided our readers with their promotional package: a limited selection of bottles of StrictionBP Advanced Formula! You can find these links below.

Content sponsored by StrictionBP’s advanced formula

Step 1:


Discounted bottles are limited.
Expires Thursday, September 17, 2020

READER RESULTS
BEFORE AFTER

“Managing my insulin resistance and blood pressure has been a constant battle. StrictionBP Advanced Formula I got my blood pressure back in a good range in just 2 weeks! Thanks a lot!”

Dillon Taylor,
Portland, Maine

BEFORE AFTER

“For the first time ever, I’m waking up happy knowing I can live my life without the constant fear of a stroke. I haven’t felt this confident in a long time!”

Robert Smith,
Sioux Falls, South Dakota

Special offer

Step 1:


Discounted bottles are limited.
Expires Thursday, September 17, 2020

BEFORE AFTER

“My hypertension was getting to the stage where I needed to make some drastic changes in my life or else I would be in trouble. Fortunately, I found StrictionBP Advanced Formula and got the same results as the medication, for less than a cup of coffee! I’m so happy!!!”

Christine Butler,
Tulsa, Oklahoma

BEFORE AFTER

“When I was in my twenties I could eat whatever I wanted and I never had to worry about my blood pressure. As I got older everything changed, it wasn’t until I discovered StrictionBP Advanced Formula I could see my blood pressure below 120.”

Scott McDonald,
St. Cloud, Minnesota

BEFORE AFTER

“As a mom of 2, I juggle work, kids, and all the other stresses of life on a daily basis. A friend of mine bought me StrictionBP Advanced Formula and I am incredibly impressed with the results! I couldn’t believe my blood pressure dropped 20 points in the same week!”

Brianna Taylor,
Syracuse, New York

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DTCC Mon raises awareness on “tobacco use and its harmful effects on humans” | MorungExpress https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/dtcc-mon-raises-awareness-on-tobacco-use-and-its-harmful-effects-on-humans-morungexpress/ Thu, 27 Oct 2022 15:45:26 +0000 https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/dtcc-mon-raises-awareness-on-tobacco-use-and-its-harmful-effects-on-humans-morungexpress/ Participants in the awareness program on “Tobacco Use and its Harmful Effects on Humans” in the Council Chamber on October 27. Monday, October 27 (MExN): An awareness program on “Tobacco use and its harmful effects on humans” was organized by the District Tobacco Control Cell (DTCC) Mon in collaboration with the Mon Police Department with […]]]>

Participants in the awareness program on “Tobacco Use and its Harmful Effects on Humans” in the Council Chamber on October 27.

Monday, October 27 (MExN): An awareness program on “Tobacco use and its harmful effects on humans” was organized by the District Tobacco Control Cell (DTCC) Mon in collaboration with the Mon Police Department with Dr. I Simon Sumi, DNO-NTCP Mon as resource person in the Council Chamber on October 27th. .

DTCC Mon in a press release said Dr. Simon highlighted the rapid increase in cases of oral cancer in our country and in Nagaland in particular. He said 90% of oral cancers in India are due to tobacco consumption. He mentioned oral diseases caused by tobacco such as leukoplakia/erythroplakia, ulceration, oral submucosal fibrosis (OSMF), etc. opening restriction, etc.

He then demonstrated an oral physiotherapy that a person with OSMF should practice in their daily life.

Speaking on the occasion, Imnalensa, IPS Superintendent of Police Mon urged jawans to be a responsible citizen and quit smoking before it affects our loved ones and said tobacco is a new norm and its addiction is a challenge that most of us struggle with. . He encouraged the jawans to spread the message of the harmful effects of tobacco to their friends, families, relatives and relatives.

There was also a screening towards the end of the program.

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A systematic review of the effects of e-cigarette use on lung function https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-e-cigarette-use-on-lung-function/ Sat, 22 Oct 2022 10:09:51 +0000 https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-e-cigarette-use-on-lung-function/ Our systematic review was conducted according to a protocol developed prior to the launch of the review, which was registered in the PROSPERO register of systematic reviews (CRD42021227121)ten. This systematic review is reported according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines.11. Search strategy and selection of studies Using a search […]]]>

Our systematic review was conducted according to a protocol developed prior to the launch of the review, which was registered in the PROSPERO register of systematic reviews (CRD42021227121)ten. This systematic review is reported according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines.11.

Search strategy and selection of studies

Using a search strategy (Supplementary Tables 1-5) developed by an experienced health sciences (GG) librarian, we systematically searched the EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases via Ovid, the Cochrane CENTRAL database and the Web of Science Core from 2004 (the year of the first e-cigarette patent) to July 12, 2021. We also conducted a gray literature search by consulting the websites of major government and public health organizations (the World Health Organization, Health Canada, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Food and Drug Administration, Canadian Center on Substance Use and Addiction, European Center for Prevention and Disease Control and the European Public Health Association). Additional articles were identified by manually searching the reference lists of included publications as well as SCOPUS and Google Scholar (first ten pages). Articles were included if they reported quantitative primary data on changes in lung function associated with vaping, defined as the use of any device that works by converting e-liquid into an aerosol using metal coils, in human participants of all ages. Cell and animal studies were excluded. Studies using non-combustion heat devices were also excluded, as they do not meet the above definition of vaping. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised intervention studies (NRSI), and cohort studies; cross-sectional studies and case reports were excluded. We included studies that used non-users of both vaping devices and conventional cigarettes as a comparison group and those that used a before-and-after design in which individuals acted as their own controls. Inclusion was not limited by language or country of publication. Abstracts and conference proceedings were included if enough data could be extracted from these publications.

Search results were downloaded from databases to reference management software (EndNote X9) or added manually (eg, for gray literature results). Duplicates were removed in EndNote and entries were uploaded to Covidence (Veritas Health Innovation, Melbourne, Australia), a systematic review software. Two reviewers (LH and KH) independently screened the titles and abstracts of all identified publications for eligibility. Citations deemed potentially eligible by either reviewer, based on the predefined review inclusion/exclusion criteria (Supplementary Table 6), were extracted for full-text screening and assessed for inclusion. Reasons for exclusion after full-text review were annotated in Covidence and any disagreements were resolved by consensus or by a third reviewer (AH-L.).

Data Extraction

Two independent reviewers (LH and KH) extracted methodological, demographic and outcome data from duplicate included studies; disagreements were detected in Covidence and were resolved by consensus or, if necessary, by a third-party reviewer (AH-L.). Data extracted included study characteristics (first author, journal, year of publication, year(s) of data collection, funding, data source, study design, recruitment strategy, length of follow-up, country source, sample size); population characteristics (sex, gender, age, race, ethnic origin, socio-economic status, dose/frequency of electronic cigarette use, status of conventional cigarette smoker, consumption of smoked cannabis); and vaping behavior, including type of vaping device used (e.g., disposable e-cigarette vs. pod device such as JUUL), vaping products used (e.g., nicotine-only cartridges vs. cartridges of THC exclusively versus dual use of nicotine and THC products), and the source of the vaping product (informal information [i.e., friends, family members, or dealers] vs. commercial [i.e., vape shops, stores, dispensaries]).

Initially, the outcomes of primary interest extracted were respiratory signs and symptoms, as they are important to patients and are early signs of respiratory disease. Secondary outcomes included: lung function results; Computed tomography (CT) findings of emphysema, airway remodeling, and loss of small airways; breathing-related quality of life and exercise limitations; the incidence and/or prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as exacerbations of previous respiratory diseases; and the use of health care resources, including outpatient respiratory care, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations. Given the limited number of studies available and the heterogeneity of the data extracted from these studies, no meta-analysis was performed.

Risk of bias

Risk of bias in included publications was assessed independently by two reviewers (LH and KH), and discrepancies were resolved by consensus or, if necessary, by a third reviewer (AH-L.). The risk of bias of the included non-randomized studies (pre-post studies, NRSI with non-vaping reference group, cohort study) was assessed using the ROBINS-I tool (Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies —of Interventions).12. The ROBINS-I tool assesses intervention-specific outcomes for a study across seven domains that assess risk of bias before the intervention, during the intervention, and after the intervention. For each outcome of interest extracted from an included study, the risk of bias in each domain was flagged as ‘low’, ‘moderate’, ‘serious’ or ‘critical’. Included RCTs were assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias assessment tool (ROB V1)13. Similar to ROBINS-I, this tool assesses risk of bias through the assessment of five domains; for each outcome of interest extracted from an included study, the risk of bias for each domain was reported as ‘low risk of bias’, ‘high risk of bias’ or ‘unclear risk of bias’. All eligible publications were included in the qualitative synthesis, regardless of their assessed risk of bias.

Summary of reports

Further information on the research design can be found in the summary of nature research reports linked to this article.

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Influence of baseline arterial stiffness on the effects of intensive versus standard blood pressure control: a post hoc analysis of the STEP trial | BMC Medicine https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/influence-of-baseline-arterial-stiffness-on-the-effects-of-intensive-versus-standard-blood-pressure-control-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-step-trial-bmc-medicine/ Thu, 20 Oct 2022 00:53:04 +0000 https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/influence-of-baseline-arterial-stiffness-on-the-effects-of-intensive-versus-standard-blood-pressure-control-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-step-trial-bmc-medicine/ Study design and population This study was a post hoc analysis of the STEP trial (STEP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03015311). Details regarding the design, rationale and key results of the STEP trial have been published previously. [3, 5]. Briefly, the STEP trial was a randomized, multicenter, open-label controlled trial that compared the effects of intensive (target […]]]>

Study design and population

This study was a post hoc analysis of the STEP trial (STEP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03015311). Details regarding the design, rationale and key results of the STEP trial have been published previously. [3, 5]. Briefly, the STEP trial was a randomized, multicenter, open-label controlled trial that compared the effects of intensive (target SBP 110 to <130 mmHg) and standard (target SBP 130 to <150 mmHg) treatment on cardiovascular outcomes in 8511 patients with hypertension at 42 clinical centers in China. The study was approved by the ethics committee of Fuwai Hospital and all collaborating centers. All participants provided written informed consent.

The inclusion and exclusion criteria were identical to those of the STEP trial. Eligible participants included people aged 60 to 80 with essential hypertension, defined as a SBP of 140 to 190 mmHg, or currently taking antihypertensive medications. Patients with a history of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were excluded. Additionally, in the present analysis, 1646 patients with missing baseline baPWV data and 8 patients with missing BP data during follow-up were excluded. In addition, 760 patients with a DBP < 70 mmHg on inclusion were excluded from the analysis of the incidence of low DBP during treatment. Finally, 6865 participants were included in the analysis of cardiovascular outcomes and safety outcomes, 6857 were included in the analysis of BP control, and 6097 were included in the analysis of low on-treatment PAD (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1

Patient selection flowchart. Abbreviations: baPWV, brachial ankle pulse wave velocity; SBP, systolic blood pressure; BP, blood pressure; CVD, cardiovascular disease. Median follow-up, 2.69 years

Randomization and intervention

Eligible participants were randomly assigned to either the intensive treatment group (SBP goal 110 to <130 mmHg) or the standard treatment group (SBP goal 130 to <150 mmHg) by a central computerized randomization program. After randomization, all participants were scheduled for follow-up once a month for the first 3 months and every 3 months thereafter until the last visit or death. A detailed antihypertensive treatment algorithm to achieve these BP targets has already been published. [5].

Make sure of the AS

To assess AS at baseline, baPWV was measured with an Omron BP-203RPEIII automatic waveform analyzer (Omron Healthcare, Kyoto, Japan). After the participants had rested for at least 5 minutes in the supine position at an ambient temperature of 22°C to 25°C, the trial-trained personnel placed electrodes on the participants’ wrists, placed a microphone on the left edge of the sternum, and placed pneumatic cuffs on the arms and ankles. The lower edge of the brachial cuff was positioned 2 to 3 cm above the transverse stria of the cubital fossa and the lower edge of the ankle cuff was positioned 1 to 2 cm above the superior surface of the medial malleolus. Sensors were used to determine volume pulse shape and blood pressure, and a solid-state pressure sensor was used to record pulse volume waveforms. For each participant, measurements were performed twice, and the last measurement was recorded. Maximum left and right baPWV values ​​were used for analysis.

Patients were divided into AS and non-AS groups based on their baseline baPWV. The AS group included patients with a baseline baPWV of ≥ 1800 cm/s, and the non-AS group included patients with a baseline baPWV of < 1800 cm/s. [20].

Covariates

Sociodemographic characteristics of each participant were collected by trained STEP physicians at baseline, including age, gender, body mass index, physical activity (never, 1-2 times/week, or ≥ 3 times/week) and the frequency of smoking and alcohol (never, never or in progress). The 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease was estimated using the Framingham risk score [21]. Current smokers were defined as those who smoked at least one cigarette a day for more than 6 months. Current alcohol drinkers were defined as those who drank at least once a month for more than 6 months. Physical activity was assessed by type and frequency of physical activity at work and during leisure time and was categorized as never, 1–2 times/week, or ≥ 3 times/week. Body mass index was calculated by dividing weight (kg) by the square of height (m).

Clinical information, including office blood pressure, was collected at baseline and every 3 months during the follow-up period. At each visit, office blood pressure was measured using the same validated automatic blood pressure monitoring device (Omron HBP-1100U; Omron Healthcare). Participants had to rest for at least 5 minutes before the blood pressure measurement. A trained physician or nurse took three blood pressure measurements at an interval of 1-2 minutes, and the average value was recorded. Laboratory tests, including measurement of creatinine, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, were performed at baseline and annually thereafter.

Definition of results

The primary endpoint of the present study was an incident cardiovascular event, including a composite of first stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic), acute coronary syndrome (myocardial infarction and hospitalization for unstable angina), acute decompensated heart failure, coronary revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft), atrial fibrillation or death from cardiovascular causes. This primary outcome was identical to that of the STEP trial [5]. Secondary outcomes were stroke, major cardiovascular events (MACE), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and death from any cause. MACE was defined as a composite of first occurrence of acute coronary syndrome, acute decompensated heart failure, coronary revascularization, and death from cardiovascular causes. The BP outcome in this study was the risk of low BP during treatment, which was defined as an average BP reached of < 70 mmHg during follow-up, as this threshold has long been considered harmful with respect to outcomes. cardiovascular. [16, 22].

Safety outcomes were hypotension, dizziness, syncope, fracture, and renal outcome. The renal outcome was a composite of a ≥50% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with chronic renal failure (CKD) at baseline, a ≥30% decrease in eGFR at <60 mL /min/1.73m2 in patients without CKD at baseline, or an increase in serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL in men or > 1.3 mg/dL in women. eGFR was calculated using the equation Diet modification in kidney disease [23]. CRI was defined as an eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2.

Statistical methods

Of the 6865 patients in this study, 3047 patients were allocated to the AS group and 3818 patients were allocated to the non-AS group. The absolute risk of the primary endpoint in the non-AS group was 3.06%. Using this number of patients and a two-sided alpha of 0.05, this study had 80% power to detect a 26% relative change in the hazard ratio of the AS group compared to the non-AS group. Additionally, based on 3444 patients in the intensive treatment group and 3421 patients in the standard treatment group enrolled in this study and an absolute risk of 4.24% in the standard group for the primary outcome, this post hoc analysis provided 80% power to detect a 20% relative risk reduction of primary events between intensive treatment and standard PAS treatment. Statistical power was calculated using PASS (version 15).

Continuous variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation, and categorical variables are presented as not (%). Baseline characteristics were compared between baPWV baseline groups (AS and non-AS) and between SBP treatment groups stratified by baPWV baseline groups using one-way analysis of variance for continuous variables and chi square (χ2) test for categorical variables. The mean BP follow-up status was calculated for each patient by averaging their BP measurements from month 3 to the last visit.

We analyzed the association between baseline baPWV groups (AS and non-AS) and primary and secondary outcomes using Cox proportional hazards regression. We then used the Fine-Gray sub-distribution risk model to calculate hazard ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the primary outcome and secondary outcomes, at the exception of death from any cause associated with intensive treatment of SBP compared with standard treatment of SBP (reference) among participants in the AS or non-AS group. For deaths from all causes, the Cox regression model was used. To assess the interaction effect of SBP treatment group in SA and non-SA patients, the product term (SBP × SA or non-SA treatment group) was included in the Cox proportional hazards regression models with a likelihood ratio test. The proportional hazards hypothesis was tested by Schoenfeld residuals for AS status, SBP intervention, and all covariates, and no violations were observed. All multivariate models were adjusted for SBP intervention, clinical centers, age and sex, baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP) level, baseline glucose level, baseline LDL cholesterol level , type of baseline antihypertensive agent, frequency of physical activity, smoking status, and alcohol status. . In addition, cumulative incidence curves were performed using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve to compare the incidence of primary outcome and stroke between the intensive and standard treatment arms in the groups AS and not AS.

We analyzed the effect of baseline AS status on the incidence of on-treatment low DBP (< 70 mmHg) and safety endpoints using a logistic regression model adjusted for PAS intervention, clinical centers, age and gender, baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP), baseline glucose level, baseline LDL cholesterol level, type of baseline antihypertensive agent, frequency of physical activity, smoking status and alcohol consumption. Similar analyzes were performed to investigate interactions between SBP treatment group and baseline AS status for on-treatment low PAD incidence (<70 mmHg) and model-based safety outcomes. logistic regression. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated by the exponential of the coefficient.

All analyzes were performed using R version 4.1.2. A double sided P a value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Missing values ​​for smoking status, alcohol status and basic laboratory tests were added by multiple imputation (mouse 3.14.0).

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Smoking is coming back and its harmful effects need to be treated https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/smoking-is-coming-back-and-its-harmful-effects-need-to-be-treated/ Tue, 18 Oct 2022 04:04:54 +0000 https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/smoking-is-coming-back-and-its-harmful-effects-need-to-be-treated/ When I first arrived on campus in September, many things surprised me: the beauty of the trees on the President’s Lawn, the intensity with which the early 2000s came back into fashion, and, unfortunately , the number of people I saw smoking cigarettes. Cigarettes were first introduced to the United States in the early 19th […]]]>

When I first arrived on campus in September, many things surprised me: the beauty of the trees on the President’s Lawn, the intensity with which the early 2000s came back into fashion, and, unfortunately , the number of people I saw smoking cigarettes.

Cigarettes were first introduced to the United States in the early 19th century as an alternative to tobacco use in pipes, cigars, and chewing tobacco. They were used in World War I to keep soldiers calm and pain free, and the military even began to include cigarettes in soldiers’ rations during World War II. The first somewhat rudimentary studies of the negative effects of cigarette smoking began to expose the causal relationship with lung cancer in the late 1940s and early 1950s.

In January 1964, then Surgeon General Luther Terry held a press conference where he condemned smoking as the cause of lung cancer and possibly heart disease, citing research by scientists from the American Cancer Society E. Cuyler Hammond, Ph.D and Daniel Horn, Ph.D. Their study describing the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer was the first to collect long-term data and include non-smokers in their sample of participants, which enhanced the credibility of the research.

Surgeon General Terry’s landmark statement in 2001 resulted in a substantial drop in the percentage of young cigarette smokers. The first e-cigarette device was invented in 2003 by pharmacist Hon Lik to help him quit his own smoking habit. Contrary to its original purpose, the growing popularity of vaping has shaped a new generation of nicotine-addicted smokers.

When e-cigarette companies realized that teens represented an untapped consumer base, they began to aggressively market their products to them. Unfortunately, these campaigns have successfully contributed to the increase in youth smoking. Some who became addicted to nicotine in their youth are now turning to cigarettes as an alternative and sometimes more accessible source of nicotine. Others fall prey to tobacco addiction in their young adulthood.

At Tufts, I’ve witnessed the repercussions of young smokers, who picked up the habit after the height of anti-smoking campaigns, showing up everywhere from cigarette butts littering the sidewalk to the second-hand smoke that too often lingers on Near Lawn.

“I think it’s mostly shocking to see someone our age smoking cigarettes, I’ve never seen any at home at all,” rookie Emma Dawson-Webb wrote in a message to The Daily. “It feels like such an ancient hazard and we have seen what it does to older generations with lung cancer or smoker’s cough. … Somehow, even though much of vaping does the same damage, it doesn’t scream as morally wrong or dangerous as smoking cigarettes.

Local convenience stores around campus sell cigarettes and will continue to do so until consumer demand is eradicated or our community takes a strong stand against tobacco and its known harms.

Decades of data collected from cigarette smokers prove the many health consequences of smoking. Although lung cancer is most commonly associated with smoking, other forms of cancer, such as mouth and throat, liver, kidney, and pancreas, have also been linked to smoking. Smoking increases the risk of conditions such as chest pain, heart attack, heart failure and arrhythmia, and it has worsened COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses.

Additionally, tobacco products contain over 7,000 toxic chemicals and are the most polluted item on the planet. They pollute our environment from oceans to city sidewalks, according to the World Health Organization. Other victims of the tobacco epidemic include those who suffer health complications from exposure to second-hand smoke. Often the children or relatives of cigarette smokers are at high risk for heart disease, lung cancer, SIDS, asthma and pneumonia.

Fortunately, the growing base of public knowledge about the harmful consequences of smoking has allowed campaigns such as The Truth to push the anti-smoking agenda further. Although 43% of adults in the United States smoked regularly in 1965, that number has dropped to 14% today. This means that while the issue seems prevalent to me from what I witnessed during my time on campus, we are moving in a positive direction nationally.

But there is still work to be done. Vaping, although marketed as harmless compared to traditional cigarettes, has facilitated the resurgence of nicotine addiction among young adults. Unlike the sunglasses, cargo pants and platform sandals of the year 2000, the return of smoking has tangible harmful effects. Given the obvious environmental and health hazards, we as a community must work together to reduce the prevalence of smoking in Tufts.

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Effects of second-hand and third-hand smoke https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/effects-of-second-hand-and-third-hand-smoke/ Thu, 13 Oct 2022 21:33:45 +0000 https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/effects-of-second-hand-and-third-hand-smoke/ SOURCES: American Cancer Society: “Second-hand smoke”. Office of the Surgeon General: “The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report from the Surgeon General”, June 27, 2006. National Cancer Institute: “Second-hand smoke: questions and answers”. CDC: “Secondhand Smoke: What It Means to You.” CDC: “Trends in exposure to second-hand smoke.” Hey. Traffic2008. American […]]]>

SOURCES:

American Cancer Society: “Second-hand smoke”.

Office of the Surgeon General: “The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report from the Surgeon General”, June 27, 2006.

National Cancer Institute: “Second-hand smoke: questions and answers”.

CDC: “Secondhand Smoke: What It Means to You.”

CDC: “Trends in exposure to second-hand smoke.”

Hey. Traffic2008.

American Heart Association: “Toddlers are most affected by secondary exposure in the home.”

American Lung Association: “Secondhand Smoke Fact Sheet.”

American Heart Association: “Smoking: do you really know the risks?” »

CDC: “Smoking cigarettes in the United States”.

Chemical research in toxicology: “Thirdhand Smoke: New Evidence, Challenges, and Future Directions.”

Cleveland Clinic: “The dangers of second-hand smoke – especially for children and those who don’t smoke.”

Clinical sciences: “In utero and early exposure to second-hand smoke causes profound changes in the immune system.

eBioMedicine: “Dermal exposure to secondhand smoke induces oxidative damage, initiates inflammatory markers in the skin, and negatively alters the human plasma proteome.”

Mayo Clinic: “What is third-hand smoke and why is it a Worry?”

PNAS: “Indoor formation by surface reactions of nicotine with nitrous acid, resulting in potential secondhand smoke hazards.”

Scientists progress: “Human Transport of Second-hand Tobacco Smoke: A Significant Source of Hazardous Air Pollutants in Non-Smoking Indoor Environments.”

Tobacco Control: “Third-hand smoke: here to stay”, “When smokers move out and non-smokers move in: pollution and exposure to residential third-hand smoke”, “Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposure”.

European journal of research: “Should we be concerned about children’s exposure to third-hand by-products generated by electronic nicotine delivery systems?”

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Vaping during pregnancy causes long-term lung effects in mouse offspring https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/vaping-during-pregnancy-causes-long-term-lung-effects-in-mouse-offspring/ Thu, 13 Oct 2022 20:39:55 +0000 https://cheapwestcigarettes.com/vaping-during-pregnancy-causes-long-term-lung-effects-in-mouse-offspring/ In the study, pregnant mice were exposed to e-cigarette vapor with nicotine, e-cigarette vapor without nicotine, or filtered air. The researchers examined the offspring at five months of age and found reduced lung function and signs of startling in mice exposed to e-cigarette vapor with or without nicotine. They also found that the female mice […]]]>

In the study, pregnant mice were exposed to e-cigarette vapor with nicotine, e-cigarette vapor without nicotine, or filtered air. The researchers examined the offspring at five months of age and found reduced lung function and signs of startling in mice exposed to e-cigarette vapor with or without nicotine. They also found that the female mice had a significantly higher body weight as adults, but not at birth. The research has been published in The American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cell and Molecular Physiology.

“The dangers of smoking traditional cigarettes during pregnancy are well documented, including sudden infant death syndrome, low birth weight, and asthma, but the effects of exposure to e-cigarette vapor during development are unclear. Vaping has only been around since the early 2000s and little research has been done during the in utero period. Our findings indicate that vaping during pregnancy may have long-term effects on the health of the offspring,” said Matthew Gorr, lead author of the study and assistant research professor at The Ohio State University College of Nursing.

Most e-cigarettes contain nicotine, an addictive drug that can damage a baby’s brain, lungs and other developing organs. They also contain chemicals, flavorings and other additives that can negatively impact health. In a 2015 study, about 7% of women said they vaped while pregnant, despite warnings from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

“E-cigarettes have been touted as being safer than traditional cigarettes and while this is true there are still health consequences. Clinical research is only just beginning to pick up speed as it is clear that e-cigarettes are not going away. We need this kind of research to help guide policy in a largely unregulated market,” said Loren Wold, study co-author and associate dean for research operations and compliance. at the College of Medicine.

The e-cigarette market has continued to grow exponentially and is expected to exceed $60 billion worldwide by 2025, outpacing sales of traditional cigarettes. As of 2014, e-cigarettes have been the most widely used tobacco product among young Americans, according to the CDC.

Next, Ohio State researchers will examine whether people exposed to vaping in utero will develop more harmful lung diseases as they age, especially when they experience other lung problems such as asthma or infection.

The research is funded by the National Institutes of Health and is part of a $5.5 million grant from the American Heart Association awarded in 2020 to researchers from the faculties of medicine, nursing, public health, and college. engineering from Ohio State University. Other research focuses on the most effective regulations to reduce the appeal and addiction of electronic cigarettes for young people and the best methods to help young people kick their addiction to electronic cigarettes.

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